Decline in intellectual functioning in the elderly

the relationship with activity and perceived health. by Deborah Jane James

Publisher: The Author] in [s.l

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 663
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Edition Notes

Thesis (D. Phil.) - University of Ulster, 1993.

ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL19839558M

Human aging, physiological changes that take place in the human body leading to senescence, the decline of biological functions and of the ability to adapt to metabolic humans the physiological developments are normally accompanied by psychological and behavioral changes, and other changes, involving social and economic factors, also occur. Intellectual decline: Introduction. Intellectual decline is a general term for an abnormal condition in which a person experiences progressive or sudden confusion, disorientation, altered level of consciousness, memory loss and/or problems with cognitive skills. Intellectual decline can result in deficiencies in many areas, such as reasoning, concentration, attention, organization, behavior.   All vital organs begin to lose some function as you age during adulthood. Aging changes occur in all of the body's cells, tissues, and organs, and these changes affect the functioning of all body systems. Living tissue is made up of cells. There are many .   Intelligence, or the ability to learn, does not necessarily decline in old age. Loss of intellectual abilities tends to be more related to low motivation, health problems and social isolation than to age. Older people have more difficulty in processing and organizing new information.

Cognitive decline in aging can negatively impact quality of life in the elderly. However, studies have shown. that elderly engaged in advanced activities of daily living (AADLs) can maintain or enhance global cognitive function or specific domains. Objective: To investigate the relationship between engagement in AADLs and domains of cognition in.   CAMDEX-DS is a comprehensive assessment tool for diagnosing dementia in people with Down's syndrome (a group known to be at particular risk of dementia). Based upon CAMDEX-R, CAMDEX-DS has been modified for use with intellectual disability. In order to differentiate decline due to dementia or other mental disorders from pre-existing impairment, particular emphasis has been . Age-Related Changes in Intellectual Functioning. Intellectual capabilities change as people grow older. IQ scores typically stay the same or get higher over the lifespan, although they may dip right before death (so-called terminal drop). Intellectual functioning is determined by many factors. However, a primary source of this capacity is mental ability or "intelligence." Intelligence refers to the ability to reason, plan, think, and communicate. These abilities allow us to solve problems, to learn, and to use good judgment. One measure of intelligence is called the intelligence.

English-speaking elderly n the Wechsler subtests are likely to be a function of the tests or a function of the two group's cogni-tive-intellectual abilities. Method Subjects The Spanish-speaking participants were 17 female and 8 male older adults with dementia of the Alzheimer's type and 17 female and 5 male nonimpaired older adults. For example, Wilson et al examined whether early-life (childhood, early adulthood) and later-life (middle-age, older age) cognitive engagement (e.g., reading books, visiting a library) influenced cognitive functioning in community-dwelling older adults. 58 In this longitudinal design, participants received cognitive assessments annually. About one-third of cognitive decline in older adults could be explained by physical abnormalities in the brain, such as damage from stroke, or plaques of amyloid beta proteins linked to Alzheimer.

Decline in intellectual functioning in the elderly by Deborah Jane James Download PDF EPUB FB2

The causes of cognitive decline in elderly presenting. The primary goals of the present study were to assess intellectual function in participants with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD.

Strategies for Preventing Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults. Dumas JA(1). Author information: (1)1 Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA. OBJECTIVE: Many advances have been made in the understanding of age-related changes in by: 6.

Absence of age-related declines in function – Activation of adaptive mechanisms • Neuronal loss limited: If neuronal loss is limited in the normal aging brain, then therapies (i.e., behavioral or drug therapies) might be targeted at promoting cell health and function, File Size: 1MB.

The first approach is relatively narrow and relies on exploiting automatic components of cognitive function that do not decline with age (Jacoby, ; Park, ). The second approach is exceptionally broad and focuses on the role of social, intellectual, and emotional engagement in increasing cognitive and neural function in older by: However, intellectual decline is not an inevitable consequence of aging.

Research does not support the stereotypic notion of the elderly losing general cognitive functioning or that such loss, when it does occur, is necessarily disruptive. Cognitive impairment in older adults has a variety of possible causes, including medication side effects, metabolic and/or endocrine derangements, delirium due to intercurrent illness, depression and dementia, with Alzheimer’s dementia being most common.

Some causes, like medication side effects and depression, can be reversed with treatment. Other diseases that are more common in older Decline in intellectual functioning in the elderly book, such as diabetes and heart disease, can also compromise cognitive function.

Medications, poor vision and hearing, sleep deprivation, and depression also can interfere with brain function, and thus cognitive ability. Cognitive impairment in the elderly has a number of causes ranging from medication side effects to depression and neurodegenerative disorders.

There is no consensus regarding the age of onset of cognitive decline. Adult cognitive abilities begin to decline around and there is a particularly notable decline in: spacial perception and processing speed Which of the following people would most likely experience a noticeable decline in cognitive functioning.

Yolanda, who is 78 years old and goes to the senior center in her neighborhood five times a week. Research has shown that aerobic exercise can improve older adults' performance on reaction time tasks It is likely due to decline in functioning of the brain and central nervous system Research has not uncovered any way to slow the decline in processing speed Health and exercise may influence the extent to which processing speed declines.

Abstract. Older adults with intellectual disability (ID) represent a heterogeneous population, including individuals with genetic syndromes along with acquired brain injuries that occur during the developmental period, resulting in intellectual cognitive impairments identified in the developmental period that lead to functional impairments.

Our results suggest that understanding the relative contribution of different cognitive domains to functional decline in elderly individuals should take into account general intellectual functioning and estimated decline, and that the initiation and/or persistence of self-directed cognitive processes may be important for adaptive daily functioning.

Download Citation | Executive Function, Intellectual Decline and Daily Living Skills | Understanding the cognitive changes associated with compromised daily living skills in elderly individuals is.

As a logical consequence of this uncertainty about what causes normal brain decline, we are equally uncertain about what sustains healthy brain function as we grow older. Increasingly, both physical and mental exercise is viewed as an effective means of slowing the effects of brain aging, perhaps by altering the levels of certain neurotropic.

There is a decline in intellectual activity, social activity and physical health. The needs and problems of the elderly vary significantly according to their age, socioeconomic status, health, living status and other such background characteristics.

The present study is an attempt to study the physical needs and adjustments made by the elderly. Estimating premorbid cognitive functioning provides valuable information for clinicians assessing older adults, particularly when evaluating cognitive functioning following a stroke or establishing a decline in functioning for diagnosing MCI or dementia.

Chapter 5 in this book provides a detailed review of estimating premorbid functioning. There is a common stereotype that older people take longer to learn new things. This turns out to be true.

Compared with younger people, older people do tend to proceed more slowly in new learning situations. This could be the result of lack of practice, different learning.

twenties and then begin very slowly to decline in volume. Blood flow to the brain also decreases over time.

The good news is that many studies have shown that the brain remains capable of regrowth and of learning and retaining new facts and skills throughout life, especially for people who get regular exercise and frequent intellectual stimulation.

In addition, it may help ward off cognitive decline and dementia. Plus, some studies have shown that engaging in a program of regular exercise improved cognitive function in people who already had memory problems. Exercise may be particularly advantageous for people who carry the APOE4 gene variant, which makes people more susceptible to.

A high incidence of limitations in daily functioning is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), along with poor physical fitness levels. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for daily functioning after 3 years, in older.

A certain amount of intellectual decline is associated with aging and is called age-related cognitive decline. Intellectual decline can occur in any age group or population, but intellectual decline is particularly common in the elderly and in people with neurological diseases or disorders, such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease.

International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Jun;25(6) Executive functioning in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology;35(1) AD pathology and cerebral infarctions are associated with memory and executive functioning one and five years before death.

people 85 years of age and older require assistance in one or more ADL. As many as 25% of older community-dwelling adults have at least one impairment in IADLs. Among patient admitted to general medical hospital units, 40% have at least one ADL impairment, 65% have one or more IADL impairments, and 30% have mobility impairment.

Clinical. When cognitive decline becomes severe enough to interfere with social and occupational function and the ability to live independently, the condition is called dementia.

17,18 Dementia affects approximately 5–10% of US adults age 65 and older. 17,19 Alzheimer disease is the number one cause of dementia in the elderly, followed by.

Memory, the ability to retrieve information from the past, tends to decline over the second half of the life course, and memory decline is one of the greatest worries older people have about aging (Molden & Maxfield, ).Understanding pathways to changes in memory is thus important, especially in the context of population aging.

IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY • There is no consensus about the optimal test battery to use in detecting dementia in persons with an intellectual disability (ID).

• We must understand that the diagnosis of dementia is a process of recognizing and accounting for the decline from the individual’s previous or baseline level of functioning. One of the challenges of managing older adults with diabetes is the individualization of care in people with multiple comorbid conditions.

Although macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes are well recognized, there is a lack of awareness regarding other conditions such as cognitive dysfunction, depression, and physical disabilities. Cognitive change in older adults is uneven and dependent on many factors, including educational background, overall intellectual capacity, health conditions, and lifestyle habits.

The following describes some of the ways in which cognition changes with age and how health and demographic factors can influence the ability to process financial.

Cognitive screening tests — such as the MoCA and other tests like the Mini-Cog and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) — can be helpful in gauging whether a person may have cognitive impairment and. Forgetfulness at older ages is often equated with a decline in cognition—a public health issue that goes beyond memory lapses and one that can have significant impacts on independent living and healthy aging.

The term “cognition” covers many mental abilities and processes, including decision making, memory, attention, and problem solving. Although educational attainment has been consistently related to cognition in adulthood, the mechanisms are still unclear.

Early education, and other social learning experiences, may provide the skills, knowledge, and interest to pursue intellectual challenges across the life course. Therefore, cognition in adulthood might reflect continued engagement with cognitively complex environments.functioning, a high level of social and intellectual stimulation can characterize elderly living with others and this stimulation may increase neuronal growth and maintenance, and thus protect the brain from deterioration and subsequent cognitive decline (Coyle, ) 1.Early retirement can accelerate cognitive decline among the elderly, according to research conducted by faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.